[globaloutlookDH-l] Open letter on digital platforms and the future of education
domenico.fiormonte at protonmail.com
Sat Nov 14 17:08:29 MST 2020
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I've been bothering you with this issue -- GAFAM & us -- for a long time. The pandemic made everything worse, and the situation is now almost completely out of control, i.e. GAFAM tools (let alone other spooky softwares like Respondus) colonizing and distorting many educational contexts, North and South of the globe.
I don't know if we can stop this process at this point, but as a digital humanists I think we should take a stand.
We cannot remail silent while platforms are occupying our universities and schools. The risks are too high.
We've written an open letter to studentes and colleagues which has been translated in several languages (but not posted online yet). In EU the objective would be for each of us to reach their respective Privacy Authority, and try to use the GDPR as a "trojan horse" for starting to undermine GAFAM's hegemony. But I'll consider it a success if we'll be able at least to start a discussion on these serious issues.
Please help us to circulate the letter.
(Would it be possible to publish it on http://www.globaloutlookdh.org/?)
Why basing universities on digital platforms will lead to their demise
Published originally in Italian on 10 November 2020
(All links removed. They can be found in the original post - English Translation by Desmond Schmidt)
A group of professors from Italian universities have written an open
letter on the consequences of using proprietary digital platforms in
distance learning. They hope that a discussion on the future of
education will begin as soon as possible and that the investments
discussed in recent weeks will be used to create a public digital
infrastructure for schools and universities.
Dear colleagues and students,
as you already know, since the COVID-19 emergency began, Italian
schools and universities have relied on proprietary platforms and
tools for distance learning (including exams), which are mostly
produced by the "GAFAM" group of companies (Google, Apple, Facebook,
Microsoft and Amazon). There are a few exceptions, such as the
Politecnico di Torino, which has adopted instead its own custom-built
solutions. However, on July 16, 2020 the European Court of Justice
issued a very important ruling, which essentially says that US
companies do not guarantee user privacy in accordance with the
European General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). As a result, all
data transfers from the EU to the United States must be regarded as
non-compliant with this regulation, and are therefore illegal.
A debate on this issue is currently underway in the EU, and the
European Authority has explicitly invited "institutions, offices,
agencies and organizations of the European Union to avoid transfers of
personal data to the United States for new procedures or when securing
new contracts with service providers." In fact the Irish Authority has
explicitly banned the transfer of Facebook user data to the United
States. Finally, some studies underline how the majority of commercial
platforms used during the "educational emergency" (primarily G-Suite)
pose serious legal problems and represent a "systematic violation of
the principles of transparency."
In this difficult situation, various organizations, including (as
stated below) some university professors, are trying to help Italian
schools and universities comply with the ruling. They do so in the
interests not only of the institutions themselves, but also of teachers and students, who have the right to study, teach and discuss without being surveilled, profiled and catalogued. The inherent risks in outsourcing teaching to multinational companies, who can do as they please with our data, are not only cultural or economic, but also
legal: anyone, in this situation, could complain to the privacy authority to the detriment of the institution for which they are working.
However, the question goes beyond our own right, or that of our students, to privacy. In the renewed COVID emergency we know that there are enormous economic interests at stake, and the digital platforms, which in recent months have increased their turnover (see the study published in October by Mediobanca), now have the the power
to shape the future of education around the world. An example is what is happening in Italian schools with the national "Smart Class" project, financed with EU funds by the Ministry of Education. This is a package of "integrated teaching" where Pearson contributes the contents of all subjects, Google provides the software, and the hardware is the Acer
Chromebook. (Incidentally, Pearson is the second largest publisher in the world, with a turnover of more than 4.5 billion euros in 2018.) And for the schools that join, it is not possible to buy other products.
Finally, although it may seem like science fiction, in addition to stabilizing proprietary distance learning as an "offer", there is already talk of using artificial intelligence to "support" teachers in their work (https://www.forbes.com/sites/forbestechcouncil/2020/06/08/artificial-intelligence-in-education-transformation/).
For all these reasons, a group of professors from various Italian universities decided to take action.
Our initiative is not currently aimed at presenting an immediate complaint to the data protection officer, but at avoiding it, by allowing teachers and students to create spaces for discussion and encourage them to make choices that combine their freedom of teaching with their right to study. Only if the institutional response is insufficient or absent, we will register, as a last resort, a complaint to the national privacy authority. In this case the first step will be to exploit the "flaw" opened by the EU court ruling to push the Italian privacy authority to intervene (indeed, the former President, Antonello Soro, had already done so, but received no response). The purpose of these actions is certainly not to "block" the platforms that provide distance learning and those who use them, but to push the government to finally invest in the creation of a public infrastructure based on free software for scientific communication and teaching (on the model of what is proposed here and
which is already a reality for example in France, Spain and other European countries).
As we said above, before appealing to the national authority, a preliminary stage is necessary. Everyone must write to the data protection officer (DPO) requesting some information (attached here is the facsimile of the form for teachers we have prepared). If no response is received within thirty days, or if the response is considered unsatisfactory, we can proceed with the complaint to the national authority. At that point, the conversation will change, because the complaint to the national
authority can be made not only by individuals, but also by groups or associations. It is important to emphasize that, even in this avoidable scenario, the question to the data controller is not necessarily a "protest" against the institution, but an attempt to turn it into a better working and study environment for everyone, conforming to European standards.
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